Thoroughly dissect and decompose the detailed structure of three-phase asynchronous motor

2022-08-20


The three-phase asynchronous motor is composed of two basic parts,a fixed stator and a rotating rotor.The rotor is installed in the inner cavity of the stator and supported on the two end caps by means of bearings.In order to ensure that the rotor can rotate freely in the stator,there must be a gap between the stator and the rotor,which is called air gap.The air gap of the motor is a very important parameter.Its size and symmetry have a great impact on the performance of the motor.
Motor accessories refer to the parts and components of the motor assembled in the motor manufacturer as the original parts of the motor.The parts and components that are damaged and replaced due to improper use or wear are called motor accessories.The classification of motor accessories can be roughly divided into motor stator,motor rotor,stator winding,motor housing,end cover,motor blade,bearing and other parts according to the components of the motor.
Motor stator
Motor stator is an important part of generator and starter.The stator is an important part of the motor.The stator is composed of stator core,stator winding and frame.The main function of the stator is to generate the rotating magnetic field,while the main function of the rotor is to be cut by the magnetic lines of force in the rotating magnetic field to generate(output)current.
Motor rotor
The motor rotor is also a rotating part of the motor.The motor is composed of rotor and stator,which is used to realize the conversion between electrical energy and mechanical energy and between mechanical energy and electrical energy.Motor rotor is divided into motor rotor and generator rotor.
stator winding
The stator winding can be divided into centralized and distributed types according to the coil winding shape and embedded wiring mode.The winding and embedding of centralized winding is relatively simple,but the efficiency is low and the operation performance is poor.At present,most of the stators of AC motors are distributed windings.According to different models,models and coil embedding process conditions,the motors are designed with different winding types and specifications,so the technical parameters of the windings are also different
Motor housing
Motor housing generally refers to the external housing of all electrical motor equipment.The motor shell is the protective device of the motor.It is made of silicon steel sheet and other materials by stamping and drawing process.In addition,rust prevention and plastic spraying on the surface can well protect the internal equipment of the motor.Main functions:dustproof,noise proof and waterproof.
End cap
The end cover is a rear cover installed behind the motor and other casings,commonly known as"end cover",which is mainly composed of cover body,bearing and brush blade.Whether the end cover is good or bad directly affects the quality of the motor.A good end cover mainly comes from its heart-the brush blade,which is used to drive the rotor to rotate.This part is the key part.
Motor blade
The fan blade of the motor is generally located at the tail of the motor and used for ventilation and cooling of the motor.It is mainly used at the tail of the AC motor or placed in the special ventilation duct of the DC and high-voltage motor.The fan blades of explosion-proof motors are generally made of plastic.
According to the material classification,there are three types of motor blades,including plastic blades,cast aluminum blades and cast iron blades.
Bearing
Bearing is an important part of modern mechanical equipment.Its main function is to support the mechanical rotating body,reduce the friction coefficient during its movement,and ensure its rotation accuracy.
Rolling bearing is generally composed of four parts:outer ring,inner ring,rolling element and cage.Strictly speaking,it is composed of six parts:outer ring,inner ring,rolling element,cage,seal and lubricating oil.It mainly has outer ring,inner ring and rolling element,which can be defined as rolling bearing.According to the shape of rolling elements,rolling bearings are divided into ball bearings and roller bearings.
The stator is composed of stator core,stator winding,frame and end cover.The main function of the machine base is to support all parts of the motor.Therefore,it should have sufficient mechanical strength and rigidity.It is usually made of cast iron.
In order to reduce eddy current and hysteresis loss,the stator core is stacked with 0.5 mm thick silicon steel sheet coated with insulating paint.There are many evenly distributed slots on the inner circumference of the core,and stator windings are embedded in the slots.
The stator windings are distributed in the slots of the stator core.The stator windings of small motors are usually wound with enameled wires.The three-phase windings are 120°apart from each other in the inner circumferential space of the stator.There are six outgoing terminals,which are respectively led to the terminals of the motor junction box.
The three-phase stator windings may be connected in a star shape or a triangle shape.The connection method is determined according to the rated voltage of the motor and the three-phase power supply voltage.Generally,the head ends of the three windings are represented by U1,V1 and W1 respectively,and the ends are represented by U2,V2 and W2 respectively.
The rotor is the rotating part of the motor,including the rotor core,rotor winding and rotating shaft.
1.Rotor core
Function:it is a part of the magnetic circuit of the motor and places the rotor winding.Generally,0.5mm thick silicon steel sheets are punched and laminated.The outer circle of the silicon steel sheet is punched with evenly distributed holes to place the rotor winding.
2.Rotor winding
It is used to cut the rotating magnetic field of the stator to generate induced electromotive force and current,and form electromagnetic torque to rotate the motor.According to different structures,it can be divided into squirrel cage rotor and wound rotor
Squirrel cage rotor:if the rotor core is removed,the whole winding looks like a squirrel cage,so it is called cage winding.Small cage motors adopt cast aluminum rotor windings,and motors above 100kW are welded with copper bars and copper end rings.
Wound rotor:the wound rotor winding is similar to the stator winding.It is also a symmetrical three-phase winding,generally connected in a star shape.The three outgoing heads are connected to the three collector rings(slip rings)of the rotating shaft,and then connected with the external circuit through the brush.
3.Rotating shaft
It is generally made of medium carbon steel or alloy steel to transmit torque and support the weight of the rotor.
(3)Other accessories
End cover,bearing,bearing end cover,fan.

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